AUSTRALIA

AUSTRALIA

30

Nov

AUSTRALIA

Posted by: Swapnil

AUSTRALIA
Introduction
Australia is a wild and beautiful place, a land whose colour palette of red outback sands and Technicolor reefs frames sophisticated cities and soulful Indigenous stories.
● Most Australians live along the coast, and most of these folks live in cities – 89% of Australians, in fact. It follows that cities here are a lot of fun.
● Sydney is the glamorous poster child with world-class beaches and an otherwise glorious setting.
● Melbourne is all arts, alleyways and a stellar food scene. Brisbane is a subtropical town on the way up, Adelaide has festive grace and pubby poise.
● Boomtown Perth breathes West Coast optimism and Canberra showcases so many cultural treasures, while the tropical northern frontier town of Darwin, and the chilly southern sandstone city of Hobart, couldn't be more different.
● Australia is an extraordinarily beautiful place, as rich in rainforest (from Far North Queensland to far-south Tasmania) as it is in remote rocky outcrops like Uluru, Kakadu and the Kimberleys.
● The coastline, too, beset as it is with islands and deserted shores, is wild and wonderful. Animating these splendid places is wildlife like nowhere else on the planet, a place of kangaroos and crocodiles, of wombats and wallabies, platypus, crocodiles, dingoes and so much more.
● Tracking these, and Australia's 700-plus bird species, is enough to unearth your inner David Attenborough, even if you didn't until now know you had one.
● Australia plates up a multicultural fusion of European techniques and fresh Pacific-rim ingredients – aka 'Mod Oz' (Modern Australian).
● Seafood plays a starring role − from succulent Moreton Bay bugs to delicate King George whiting.
● Of course, beer in hand, you'll still find beef, lamb and chicken at Aussie barbecues. Don't drink beer? Australian wines are world-beaters: punchy Barossa Valley shiraz, Hunter Valley semillon and cool-climate Tasmanian sauvignon blanc.
● Tasmania produces outstanding whisky too. Need a caffeine hit? You'll find cafes everywhere, coffee machines in petrol stations, and baristas in downtown coffee carts.
● There's a lot of tarmac across this wide brown land. From Margaret River to Cooktown, Jabiru to Dover, the best way to appreciate Australia is to hit the road.
● Car hire is relatively affordable, road conditions are generally good, and beyond the big cities traffic fades away.
● If you're driving a campervan, you'll find well-appointed caravan parks in most sizable towns.
● If you're feeling adventurous, hire a 4WD and go off-road: Australia's national parks and secluded corners are custom-made for camping trips down the dirt road and classic desert tracks from Birdsville to Cape York have adventure written all over them.

Getting There
Canberra International Airport(CBR) is the capital airport of Australia

Mumbai to Australia:
● Sydney - 1 stop · 14h 25m+, from ₹ 50,890.
● Melbourne, 1 stop · 14h 25m+, from ₹ 52,329.
● Perth, 1 stop · 12h 20m+, from ₹ 47,835.
● Brisbane, 1 stop · 14h 0m+, from ₹ 57,975.
● Adelaide, 1 stop · 15h 45m+, from ₹ 55,113.

Facts Facts
● Biggest Island & Smallest Continent 10 Interesting Facts About Australia One of the interesting facts about Australia is that Australia is the biggest island and the smallest continent in the world. Australia is the only nation to govern an entire continent and its outlying islands. The mainland is the largest island and the smallest, flattest continent on Earth.

● Driest Inhabited Continent Lying between 10° and 39° South latitude, Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world. Its interior has one of the lowest rainfalls in the world and about three-quarters of the land is arid or semi-arid. Its fertile areas are well-watered, however, and these are used very effectively to help feed the world.

● Sixth Largest Nation in The World Another interesting facts about Australia, In land area, Australia is the world’s sixth-largest country by total area after Russia, Canada, China, the United States of America and Brazil. It has, however, a relatively small population.

● World’s Longest Fence The longest fence in the world is known as The Dingo Fence, Dog Fence, Wild Dog Fence or Border Fence depending on which state you are in. The fence is approximately 5,614 kilometres long starting at Jimbour in Queensland and continuing on to the Great Australian Bight in South Australia.

● Language & Dialects Over 200 different languages and dialects are spoken in Australia including 45 Indigenous languages. The most common non-English spoken languages are Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic, Vietnamese and Mandarin.

● Economy Most amazing facts about Australia. Australia has had one of the most outstanding, the largest capitalist economies of the world in recent years with a GDP of US$1.57 trillion. It’s total wealth is 6.4 trillion dollars about 1.7% of the world economy. As a high-growth, low-inflation, low interest rate economy, it is more vibrant than ever before. There is an efficient government sector, a flexible labour market and a very competitive business sector.

Currency/Conversion/Dialing Code

Currency - Australian Dollar. Conversion - 1 Australian Dollar = 48.24 INR. Dialing Code - +61.
Emergency numbers:-Primary emergency number:-000, 112

Time Difference
Australia is 4 hours and 30 minutes ahead of India 4:31 PM Thursday, in India is 9:01 PM Thursday, in Canberra ACT, Australia.

Climate
● Due to the size of the continent, there is not one single seasonal calendar for the entire continent. Instead there are six climatic zones and this translates as two main seasonal patterns.

● There is a Summer / Autumn / Winter / Spring pattern in the Temperate zone, also affecting the Desert and the Grassland climatic zones and, a Wet / Dry pattern in the tropical north which includes the Equatorial, Tropical and sub-tropical zones.

● Depending upon where you are each Month, the season will vary on whether the weather is defined by the Temperate zone seasons or the tropical seasons.

● The Temperate zone occupies the coastal hinterland of New South Wales, much of Victoria, Tasmania, the south-eastern corner of South Australia and the south-west of Western Australia. The seasons in the temperate zone are described in terms of European seasons applied to the southern hemisphere in the following sequence: Summer: December to February. Autumn: March to May. Winter: June to August. Spring: September to November.

● In the southern capital cities: Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, Hobart, Adelaide and Perth, defined by the temperate zone, the average temperatures are: Summer minimum 16 and Summer maximum 26 and Winter minimum 6 and Winter maximum 14, all in degrees Celsius. In the sub tropic and tropical cities the average minimum temperatures are: Brisbane 16 and Darwin 23 with the average maximums: Brisbane 25 and Darwin 32. In the inland city of Alice Springs, surrounded by desert and grassland, the average minimum is 20 and the average maximum is 32.

Local Cuisines
● Pavlova.
● Tim Tams.
● Bowen Mangoes.
● Anzac Biscuits.
● Milk Bar Lollies.

Festivals of Australia

● Sydney Festival (January)
Each year the Sydney Festival offers a rich and diverse program spanning all art forms and including dance, theatre, music, visual arts, film, forums and large-scale free outdoor events. For three weeks in January the festival hosts around 80 events involving upwards of 500 artists from Australia and abroad.

● National Multicultural Festival, Canberra (February)
The National Multicultural Festival is held over four days and features the very best in local, national and international music, dance, food and creative arts. Festival favourites include the Food and Dance Spectacular, the Greek Glendi, Carnivale, the International Concert and the Pacific Islander Showcase. The Festival Fringe complements the mainstream festival, and provides a place for artists who break traditional barriers to bring their work to a wider audience.

● Perth International Arts Festival (February–March)
The Perth International Arts Festival is the oldest annual international multi-arts festival in the southern hemisphere and is Western Australia's premier cultural event. The first Perth Festival was in 1953 and it now offers the people of Western Australia some of the best international and contemporary drama, theatre, music, film, visual arts, street arts, literature, comedy and free community events.

● Adelaide Festival of Arts (March)
The Adelaide Festival of Arts has created a strong tradition of innovation since 1960, inspiring, challenging and entertaining artists and performers across theatre, dance,music, visual arts, literature and more. Held in the warm South Australian autumn every year, this vital and prestigious celebration of art from around the globe has defined South Australia as the nation’s premier festival state.

● Ten Days on the Island, Tasmania (March).
asmania's flagship celebration of island arts and culture, Ten Days on the Island, boasts a multitude of events in 50 locations across the island. Events and activities range across all types of music, dance, visual arts, theatre, literature, food and film. Individual artists and companies come from all corners of the globe, and a number of local artists also take part.

● Darwin Festival (August).
The Darwin Festival is an expression of the city's uniqueness, celebrating its multicultural community, youthful energy, tropical climate and great lifestyle. The cultural program provides a feast of local, national and international performances to excite, inspire and entertain. It includes opera, cabaret, dance, music, film, comedy, the visual arts and workshops – incorporating music and dance from Indigenous, Indonesian and Pacific Island communities. There is also a strong visual arts component, with traditional land owners guiding visitors through the many galleries exhibiting Indigenous art.

● Brisbane Festival (September).
Brisbane Festival is a major international arts festival that explodes onto the scene every September with a thrilling program of music, theatre, dance, opera, circus and major public events such as Sunsuper Riverfire. It endeavours to include the entire community in its program of activities by having intellectual rigour, international artistic credibility and an extremely broad grass-roots support base.

● Melbourne International Arts Festival (October).
Melbourne International Arts Festival has a reputation for presenting unique international and Australian events in the fields of dance, theatre, music, visual arts, multimedia, and free and outdoor events over 17 days each October. First staged in 1986 under the direction of composer Gian Carlo Menotti, it became the third in the Spoleto Festival series – joining Spoleto, Italy, and Charleston, United States. Melbourne's Spoleto Festival changed its name to the Melbourne International Festival of the Arts in 1990. In 2003, the festival was renamed Melbourne International Arts Festival.

Top Places to Visit in Australia

● Sydney

● National parks ring the city and penetrate right into its heart. Large chunks of the harbour are still edged with bush, while parks cut their way through the skyscrapers and suburbs.

● Consequently, native critters turn up in the most surprising places. Clouds of flying foxes pass overhead at twilight.

● Spend the night rustling around in suburban fig trees, oversized spiders stake out the corners of lounge-room walls, possums rattle over the roofs of terrace houses, and sulphur-crested cockatoos screech from the railings of urban balconies.

● At times Sydney's concrete jungle seems more like an actual one – and doesn't that just make it all the more exciting? After a lazy Saturday at the beach, urbane Sydneysiders have a disco nap, hit the showers and head out again.

● There's always a new restaurant to try, undercover bar to hunt down, hip band to check out, sports team to shout at, show to see or crazy party to attend.

● The city's pretensions to glamour are well balanced by a casualness that means a cool T-shirt and a tidy pair of jeans will get you in most places.

● But if you want to dress up and show off, there's plenty of opportunity for that among the sparkling lights of the harbour.

Getting There -
Sydney International Airport (SYD)

Mumbai to Sydney:
● Malaysia 15h 40m+ from ₹ 50,366.
● Qantas Qantas 15h 45m+ from ₹ 61,171.
● Cathay Pacific Cathay Pacific 17h 10m+ from ₹ 65,678.
● Singapore Airlines Singapore Airlines 15h 5m+ from ₹ 67,710.
● Other airlines Other airlines 14h 25m+ from ₹ 51,827.

See -
Bondi Beach - Definitively Sydney, Bondi is one of the world’s great beaches: ocean and land collide, the Pacific arrives in great foaming swells, and all people are equal, as democratic as sand. It’s the closest ocean beach to the city centre (8km away), has consistently good (though crowded) waves, and is great for a rough-and-tumble swim (the average water temperature is a considerate 21°C). If the sea’s angry, try the child-friendly saltwater sea baths at either end of the beach.
Sydney Harbour Bridge - Sydneysiders adore their giant 'coathanger'. Opened in 1932, this majestic structure spans the harbour at one of its narrowest points. The best way to experience the bridge is on foot – don't expect much of a view crossing by car or train. Stairs climb up the bridge from both shores, leading to a footpath running the length of the eastern side. You can climb the southeastern pylon to the Pylon Lookout or ascend the great arc on the wildly popular BridgeClimb.
Sydney Opera House - Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, this World Heritage–listed building is Australia's most recognisable landmark. Visually referencing a yacht's billowing white sails, it's a soaring, commanding presence on the harbour. The complex comprises five performance spaces where dance, concerts, opera and theatre are staged. The best way to experience the building is to attend a performance, but you can also take a one-hour multilingual guided tour. Renovation works from 2017 to 2019 will
close the concert hall and may disrupt visits. Opening Hours - tours 9am-5pm. Entry Fee - tours adult/child $37/20.
Art Gallery of NSW - With its neoclassical Greek frontage and modern rear end, this much-loved institution plays a prominent and gregarious role in Sydney society. Blockbuster international touring exhibitions arrive regularly and there's an outstanding permanent collection of Australian art, including a substantial Indigenous section. The gallery also plays host to lectures, concerts, screenings, celebrity talks and children's activities. A range of free guided tours is offered on different themes and in various languages; enquire at the desk or check the website. Opening Hours - 10am-5pm Thursday-Tuesday, to 10pm Wednesday.
Sydney Observatory - Built in the 1850s, Sydney’s copper-domed, Italianate sandstone observatory squats atop pretty Observatory Hill, overlooking the harbour. Inside is a collection of vintage apparatus, including Australia’s oldest working telescope (1874), as well as background on Australian astronomy and transits of Venus. Also on offer are entertaining tours (adult/child $10/8), which include a planetarium show. Bookings are essential for night-time stargazing sessions (adult/child $22/17), which run Monday to Saturday, and Aboriginal sky storytelling sessions (adult/child $18/12). All tours are great for kids. Opening Hours - 10am-5pm.
Taronga Zoo - A 12-minute ferry ride from Circular Quay, this bushy harbour hillside is full of kangaroos, koalas and similarly hirsute Australians, plus numerous imported guests. The zoo’s critters have million-dollar harbour views, but seem blissfully unaware of the privilege. Encouragingly, Taronga sets benchmarks in animal care and welfare. Highlights include the nocturnal platypus habitat, the Great Southern Oceans section and the Asian elephant display. Feedings and encounters happen throughout the day, while in summer, twilight concerts jazz things up. Opening Hours - 9.30am-5pm Sep-Apr, 9.30am-4.30pm May-Aug. Entry Fee - adult/child $46/26.
Chinatown - With a discordant soundtrack of blaring Canto pop, Dixon St is the heart of Chinatown: a narrow, shady pedestrian mall with a string of restaurants and insistent spruikers. The ornate dragon gates (paifang) at either end have fake bamboo tiles, golden Chinese calligraphy and ornamental lions to keep evil spirits at bay. Chinatown is a fabulous eating district, which effectively extends for several blocks north and south of here, and segues into Koreatown and Thaitown to the east.
Australian National Maritime Museum - Beneath a soaring roof, the Maritime Museum sails through Australia’s inextricable relationship with the sea. Exhibitions range from Indigenous canoes to surf culture, immigration to the navy. The worthwhile ‘big ticket’ (adult/child $30/18) includes entry to some of the vessels moored outside, including the atmospheric submarine HMAS Onslow and the destroyer HMAS Vampire. The high-production-value short film Action Stations sets the mood with a re-creation of a mission event from each vessel. Excellent free guided tours explain each vessel's features. Opening Hours - 9.30am-5pm, to 6pm Jan. Entry Fee - permanent collection free, temporary exhibitions adult/child $20/free.
Australian Museum - Under an ongoing process of modernisation, this museum, established just 40 years after the First Fleet dropped anchor, is doing a brilliant job of it. A standout is the Indigenous Australians section, covering Aboriginal history and spirituality, from Dreaming stories to videos of the Freedom Rides of the 1960s. The stuffed animal gallery of the natural history section manages to keep it relevant, while the excellent dinosaur gallery features the enormous Jobaria as well as local bruisers like Muttaburrasaurus. Opening Hours - 9.30am-5pm. Entry Fee - adult/child $15/free.
Sydney Sea Life Aquarium - As well as regular wall-mounted tanks and ground-level enclosures, this impressive complex has two large pools that you can walk through, safely enclosed in Perspex tunnels, as an intimidating array of sharks and rays pass overhead. Other highlights include clownfish (howdy Nemo), platypuses, moon jellyfish (in a disco-lit tube), sea dragons and the swoon-worthy finale: the two-million-litre Great Barrier Reef tank. Opening Hours - 9.30am-6pm Mon-Thursday, to 7pm Friday-Sunday & school holidays, last entry 1hr earlier. Entry Fee - adult/child $40/28.
Royal Botanic Garden - These expansive gardens are the city's favourite picnic destination, jogging route and snuggling spot. Bordering Farm Cove, east of the Opera House, the gardens were established in 1816 and feature plant life from Australia and around the world. Within the gardens are hothouses with palms and ferns as well as the Calyx, a striking new exhibition space whose curving glasshouse gallery features a wall of greenery and temporary plant-y exhibitions. Opening Hours - 7am to dusk.
Walsh Bay - This section of Dawes Point waterfront was Sydney’s busiest before the advent of container shipping and the construction of new port facilities at Botany Bay. The last decade has seen the Federation-era wharves here gentrified beyond belief, morphing into luxury hotels, apartments, theatre spaces, power-boat marinas, cafes and
restaurants. It's a picturesque place to stroll, combining the wharves and harbour views here with nearby Barangaroo Park.
Brett Whiteley Studio - Acclaimed local artist Brett Whiteley (1939–1992) lived fast and without restraint. His hard-to-find studio (look for the signs on Devonshire St) has been preserved as a gallery for some of his best work. Pride of place goes to his astonishing Alchemy, a giant multi-panel extravaganza that could absorb you for hours with its broad themes, intricate details and humorous asides. The studio room upstairs also gives great insight into the character of this masterful draughtsman and off-the-wall genius. Opening Hours - 10am-4pm Friday-Sunday.
Powerhouse Museum - A short walk from Darling Harbour, this cavernous science and design museum whirs away inside the former power station for Sydney’s defunct, original tram network. The collection and temporary exhibitions cover everything from robots and life on Mars to steam trains to climate change to atoms to fashion, industrial design and avant-garde art installations. There are great options for kids of all ages but it's equally intriguing for adults. Grab a map of the museum once you're inside. Disabled access is good. Opening Hours - 10am to 5pm. Entry Fee - adult/child $15
Nicholson Museum - Within the University of Sydney's quadrangle, this is one of the city's great under-the-radar attractions. Combining modern ideas with ancient artefacts, it's an intriguing collection of Greek, Roman, Cypriot, Egyptian and Western Asian antiquities. Attic vases and Egyptian mummies take their place alongside themed cross-cultural displays, plus there's a fabulous Pompeii made from Lego that features toga-clad citizens alongside the likes of Pink Floyd rocking the amphitheatre. The museum is to be incorporated into the new Chau Chak Wing Museum by 2019. Opening Hours - 10am-4.30pm Monday-Friday, noon-4pm 1st Saturday of month.
North Head - About 3km south of Manly, spectacular, chunky North Head offers dramatic cliffs, lookouts and sweeping views of the ocean, the harbour and the city; hire a bike and go exploring.
Rocks Discovery Museum - Divided into four chronological displays – Warrane (pre-1788), Colony (1788–1820), Port (1820–1900) and Transformations (1900 to the present) – this small, excellent museum, tucked away down a Rocks laneway, digs deep into the area's history and leads you on an artefact-rich tour. Sensitive attention is given to the Rocks’ original inhabitants, the Gadigal (Cadigal) people, and there are interesting tales of early colonial characters. Opening Hours - 10am to 5pm.
Sydney Fish Market - This piscatorial precinct on Blackwattle Bay shifts over 15 million kilograms of seafood annually, and has retail outlets, restaurants, a sushi bar, an oyster bar, and a highly regarded cooking school. Chefs, locals and overfed seagulls haggle over mud crabs, Balmain bugs, lobsters and slabs of salmon at the daily fish auction, which kicks off at 5.30am weekdays. Check it out on a behind-the-scenes tour (adult/child $35/10). Opening Hours - 7am-4pm.
Chinese Garden of Friendship - Built according to Taoist principles, the Chinese Garden of Friendship is usually an oasis of tranquillity – although construction noise from Darling Harbour's redevelopment can intrude from time to time. Designed by architects from Guangzhou (Sydney’s sister city) for Australia’s bicentenary in 1988, the garden interweaves pavilions, waterfalls, lakes, paths and lush plant life. There's also a teahouse. Opening Hours - 9.30am-5pm Apr-Sep, 9.30am-5.30pm Oct-Mar. Entry Fee - adult/child $6/3.
Manly Beach - Sydney's second most famous beach stretches for nearly two golden kilometres, lined by Norfolk Island pines and scrappy midrise apartment blocks. The southern end of the beach, nearest The Corso, is known as South Steyne, with North Steyne in the centre and Queenscliff at the northern end; each has its own surf lifesaving club.
McMahons Point - Is there a better view of the Bridge and the Opera House than from the wharf at this point, a short hop by ferry northwest of the centre? It's all unfolded before you and is a stunning spot to be when the sun is setting.
Store Beach - A hidden jewel on North Head, magical Store Beach can only be reached by kayak or boat. It’s a fairy-penguin breeding ground, so access is prohibited from dusk, when the birds waddle in. Opening Hours - Dawn to